Crater, Greek means “bowl.” “A crater” usually refers to a pit of a bowl-shaped pit structure. The surface of the moon is covered with large and small circular pits called “moon pits”. Most of the moon pits are surrounded by craters that rise above the moon. More craters on the back of the moon.
There is a deep pit in the middle of the crater. There are towering erect rocks around it. The height of the crater is generally between 7 and 8 kilometers. The craters vary in size and vary widely in diameter. Small craters are less than 10 kilometers in diameter, and some are only one football field; large craters are more than 100 kilometers in diameter. The largest crater is the Bailey crater near the South Pole of the Moon, with a diameter of 295 kilometers, which is a little smaller than Zhejiang Province in China. The total number of moon pits with a diameter greater than 1000 meters has reached more than 33,000. The large diameter exceeds 100 kilometers, accounting for 7-10% of the lunar surface.
Most of the craters are named after famous astronomers or other scholars. Six of the craters on the back of the moon are named after ancient Chinese astronomers.
The coldest-known place in the solar system is a lot closer to home than you might imagine. It was originally believed to be the surface of Pluto. But in 2009, scientists discovered craters around the Moon’s south pole that can drop as low as -248 degrees Celsius (-414 °F) during winter. NASA’s Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter made the discovery by measuring radiation levels from 50 kilometers (31 mi) above the Moon’s surface.The coldest temperatures are found inside lunar crevices that are permanently cast in shadow, meaning they never receive any sunlight. These subzero craters act as “cold traps,” capturing elements and volatile gases that can be analyzed to map out an archive of activity on the Moon. For instance, minerals identified in Cabeus—a 98-kilometer (61 mi) crater close to the south pole—suggest a history of comet strikes.That being said, the surface of the Moon is not always extremely cold. In fact, the temperature varies drastically depending on time and position. The equator around midday is so hot that it could boil water, whereas the poles are nearly as cold as liquid oxygen overnight.