It is hard to imagine what the universe looked like 13.7 billion years ago. At that time, the universe was just a singularity. Regarding the origin of the universe, the Big Bang theory has a major competitor. This theory shows that all matter and space in the universe itself exist in the form of small atoms of Biya.
But now a more difficult problem has emerged: What happened before the Big Bang?
At the beginning of the twentieth century, Einstein came to a conclusion very similar to general relativity. We only need to consider the impact of quality on time. The massive mass of a planet causes the time to bend, which causes the Earth’s surface to run a little slower than the time on the satellite orbit. And the difference between these speeds is too small for people to feel. But compared to those who stand alone in the open fields, time runs slower for people standing next to huge rocks.
Based on Einstein’s research, the Belgian cosmologist Rev. Georges Lemaître published a paper in 1937 saying: The universe was originally a singularity, and the big bang led to the expansion of the universe.
However, according to this logical clue, the title of this article is flawed. Because time is born as the singularity of the universe gradually expands into the current size and shape.
Is this the end of the day? Far from it. The confusion about the universe will never stop. A few decades after the death of Einstein, with the development of quantum physics and the introduction of a series of new theories, the question about what the universe before the big bang was a comeback. Let’s take a look at the following assumptions.
Is the current universe erupted from the previous universe?
What if our current universe is a descendant of another, older universe? Some astrophysicists believe that this is all related to cosmic microwave background radiation. The so-called cosmic background radiation refers to the remnants of the big blast that still generate heat radiation to the existing universe.
Astronomers first discovered the existence of cosmic microwave background radiation in 1965, which quickly led to questions about the Big Bang theory. Since then, people have been exploring relevant issues, and in 1981 created the theory of cosmic inflation. This theory claims that the universe experienced rapid expansion at the beginning of its existence. At the same time, this theory also believes that temperature and density fluctuations will also affect the cosmic microwave background radiation, but the temperature and density fluctuations should be uniform.
However, it is not. The latest mapping results show that the interior of the universe is unbalanced, and some regions have greater fluctuations in density and temperature than others. Some cosmologists see the imbalance within the universe as a supporting evidence that the present universe is ejected from the ancient “maternal universe.” California Institute of Technology researcher Adrienne Erickcek holds this view.
In the theory of chaotic inflation, this concept is deeper. This theory holds that the universe is a constantly expanding bubble, and each bubble will spawn a new universe, and each time the birth of the new universe will bring in the expansion of countless bubbles.
Other models still form around the singularity itself before the big bang. If you think of black holes as the garbage shredders of the universe, then they are doing the main compression work. Therefore, our inflated universe may theoretically be a “white hole” that is output from another black hole in the universe. The so-called white hole is a hypothetical entity whose function is opposite to that of a black hole, intended to emit energy and matter, rather than sucking matter and energy into the hole. Think of the white hole as a cosmic exhaust valve. Some scientists have suggested that our universe may have been born from black holes, and that every black hole in our universe may contain other independent universes. However, some scientists believe that the birth of the universe is not because of the big bang, but because of the big rebound.
Big rebound in the universe
A long time ago, medieval religious philosophers in India believed that the universe was in an endless cycle, constantly creating and destroying. Originally, the quality of the universe was indistinguishable, but it gradually evolved into the complex reality we saw. After that, the universe will destroy itself and create a new universe again.
Some contemporary scientists and Indian philosophers have reached an amazing consensus. Some scientists do not agree with the big bang theory, but believe that the universe expands and contracts according to a certain period, and each time it shrinks to a certain size, it bounces back. In the big bounce theory, each cycle starts in a small, smooth universe, but this universe is not as small as a singularity. The universe will gradually expand and become more heavy, and the time will become more and more curved. Eventually, the universe collapses at the critical point, gradually smoothes and then shrinks to its original size, and the new cycle begins.
In order for the big bounce theory to work, we must find the corresponding method in the singularity theorem proposed by British physicists Roger Penrose and Stephen Hawking. According to the singularity theorem, a shrinking universe will continue to shrink until it becomes a singularity. During this period, the massive stars will gradually die and eventually be compressed to form black holes. The theoretical model of the big rebound is based on the idea that negative energy counteracts gravity and reverses the collapse of the universe. This means that the universe and time and space will be torn again and again.
These cycles of contraction and expansion are repeated approximately every trillion years.
The theory of large rebound is different from the view of Western civilization realism because it recognizes that time actually exists before the universe.
However, no matter whether the scientists agree with the big bang theory or the big rebound theory, what exists before the existence of the existing universe is still an open question. Maybe, there is nothing, maybe there are other universes or different versions of the existing universe, and there may be a sea of universe. Each hypothesis follows different laws and presents different physical realities.