At the end of the eighteenth century, many countries, such as the United States and Europe, gradually developed from capitalism to imperialism. In order to stimulate the rapid development of the economy and extract more surplus value, in order to maintain this fast-moving capitalist machine, capitalists continue to increase labor. Time and labor intensity to brutally exploit workers. ;
In the United States, workers work 14 to 16 hours a day, and some even up to 18 hours, but wages are low. The supervisor of a shoe factory in Massachusetts once said: “Let a 18-year-old man with a strong and healthy body work next to any machine here, I can make his hair gray when he is 22 years old.” Heavy class oppression provoked the great anger of the proletarians. They know that to survive the conditions of survival, they must only unite and fight the capitalists through the strike movement. The strike conditions proposed by the workers are to require an eight-hour work system.
In 1877, the first national strike in American history began. The working class went to the streets to demonstrate and improve the conditions of labor and living, and demanded a reduction in working hours and an eight-hour working system. Soon after the strike, the team has expanded and the number of union members has soared. Workers from all over the world have also participated in the strike.
Under the strong pressure of the workers’ movement, the US Congress was forced to enact an eight-hour work-making law. However, some capitalists simply ignored it. This law is nothing more than a piece of paper. The workers are still living in dire straits and suffering from the capitalists. The unbearable workers decided to push this struggle for the right to survival to a new climax and prepare for a larger strike.
In October 1884, eight international and national workers’ groups in the United States and Canada held a rally in Chicago, USA, and decided to hold a general strike on May 1, 1886, forcing capitalists to implement an eight-hour work system. This day has finally arrived. On May 1, 1886, 350,000 workers from more than 20,000 companies in the United States stopped working on the streets and held a large-scale demonstration. All kinds of skin colors and workers of all kinds of work went on a general strike. In a city of Chicago alone, 45,000 workers are on the streets. This time, the main industrial sector in the United States is in a state of paralysis, the train becomes a stiff snake, the store is silent, and all the warehouses are closed and sealed.
In 1866, the First International Geneva Conference presented the slogan of an eight-hour work system. On May 1, 1886, a large-scale strike and demonstration took place in the United States with about 350,000 people in the United States. The demonstrators demanded that the working conditions be improved and an eight-hour working system be implemented. On May 3, 1886, the Chicago government dispatched police to suppress, shot and killed two people, and the situation expanded. On May 4, the strike workers held a protest in the Haymarket Square. As the unidentified person threw a bomb at the police, the police finally fired. A total of four workers and seven policemen died, known as Haymarket Riot or Haymarket Massacre. In the subsequent verdict, eight anarchists were charged with murder, four anarchists were hanged, and one committed suicide.
In order to commemorate this great workers’ movement and to protest the subsequent verdicts, workers’ protests were held around the world. These activities became the predecessor of the International Labor Day.
In July 1889, at the Second International Inaugural Conference organized by Engels, it was announced that May 1 of each year will be designated as International Labor Day.
After a arduous bloody struggle, I finally won the victory. To commemorate the workers’ movement, on July 14, 1889, the Socialist Congress, which was convened by Marxists from various countries, was grandly opened in Paris, France. At the meeting, the representatives unanimously agreed to set May 1 as the common festival of the international proletariat. This decision was immediately and positively responded to by workers from all over the world. On May 1, 1890, the working class in Europe and the United States took the lead in the streets, holding grand demonstrations and gatherings to fight for legitimate rights and interests. From then on, on this day, the working people of all countries in the world must gather and march to celebrate and public holidays.