Today is “Egypt National Day”. Let’s go back to ancient Egypt to see how humans built pyramids at that time.
The Pyramids of Egypt are the tombs of Pharaohs, the ruler of ancient Egypt more than 4,500 years ago. The ancient Egyptians believed that life was only a short stay and could only be enjoyed forever after death. Therefore, the pharaohs would spend decades building the tombs. The craftsman was also ordered to use tomb murals and wooden models to depict the scenes of boating, hunting, and banquets that he would continue to engage in after his death, so that he could live as comfortable as before. The corpses of the pharaohs were embalmed and buried in the pyramids as mummies.
The largest pyramids discovered so far are the three pyramids in Giza on the outskirts of Cairo, and the pyramid of Pharaoh Khufu of the Fourth Dynasty is the largest of these three. The Pyramid of Khufu (also known as the Pyramid of Chiaps) was originally 146.5 meters high. After thousands of years of wind and rain, the top has been eroded by nearly 10 meters.
The bottom of the Pyramid of Khufu is square, each side is about 232 meters long, and it takes about 1,000 meters to walk around the pyramid. In addition to its impressive scale, the Pyramid of Khufu is also named for its highly precise construction techniques. Because there is no cement or other cement between the stones of the tower, it is just made of stones. The average weight of each stone used to build the pyramid is 2.5 tons, and each stone is ground very flat. Although it has been thousands of years, it is still difficult to insert a sharp blade into the gap between the stones. Therefore, it is imaginable that they can survive thousands of years.
How exactly was the pyramid built? There are many opinions, and the main ones are equipment handling, slope handling, pouring and water transportation. As early as 450 BC, Herodotus, an ancient Greek historian who held the theory of carrying equipment, believed that the Pharaoh dispatched tens of thousands of slaves and used a series of equipment to build up the huge stones from low to high. Build a pyramid.
Imagine building a pyramid
Those who hold the slope transport theory believe that when the ancient Egyptians built the pyramids, they first built a large slope outside the pyramid, and then pulled the stone up. Pile a layer of slope, build a layer of stone, and gradually build the pyramid higher. After calculation, the slope of the slope is about 7°～8°. To build such a high pyramid, the slope is 1.6 kilometers long and it is very steep when it reaches the top.
Later, someone came up with a new insight, thinking that the huge stones on the pyramid were all artificially made. It is said that after analyzing the structure of the boulder with the help of microscope and chemical methods, it was discovered that the stones on the pyramid were artificially poured and concreted with lime and shells. The method is similar to the method of pouring concrete today. From this he speculated that the ancient Egyptians probably used the method of “splitting into parts” to build the pyramids. They put the mixed concrete into the basket first, and then lifted the pyramid under construction. In this way, as long as you master a certain technique, you can pour a block of boulders.
It is also believed that the ancient Egyptians used the “water transportation method” to build pyramids. In 1980, when people from the Egyptian Antiquities Conservation Committee were sampling the core, they found a cave at least 50 meters deep. This cave was probably a port excavated during the Fourth Dynasty of Ancient Egypt. Therefore, they believe that the water transportation method may be used to move boulders.