In September 1814, an American lawyer named Francis Scott Key met with Ross and Cochrane to negotiate the release of his friend Dr. William Beanes, who had been taken prisoner. The British higher-ups agreed to let the doctor go, but for the sake of military secrecy, they forbade Key and Beanes from going ashore until after a planned attack on Baltimore had ended.
That’s how Key was able to witness the bombardment of Fort McHenry, a star-shaped bastion, completed in 1802, that faced Baltimore Harbor. The fort withstood a massive assault on September 13 and enabled the Americans to successfully defend Baltimore. From his vantage point onboard a truce ship, Key watched as the 42-by-30-foot flag above the fort remained in place even amidst heavy cannon fire. Much to his delight, it was “still there” the next morning (though it’s thought that during the actual battle the giant flag was replaced by a smaller “storm flag”).
The inspired lawyer went on to write a poem set to the melody of “To Anacreon in Heaven,” the theme song of a well-known London gentlemen’s club. Key’s original title for his poem was “Defense of Fort McHenry,” but it was later renamed “The Star-Spangled Banner” by a Baltimore music store. In 1931, it officially became America’s first national anthem.