Why do people get drunk? There are scientific answers, but why do people get drunk?
Why do some people get drunk when they drink?
According to foreign media reports recently, a study published in the journal Alcohol Abuse: Clinical and Experimental Research showed that celebrations and coping with stress are the main reasons for getting drunk.
Drinking too much and too quickly can lead to drunkenness. Although you will stay awake at the time, you can’t remember what happened after you get drunk. Excessive drinking puts people at risk of accidents and dangerous behaviors, and may cause long-term damage to the brain.
Despite these risks, excessive drinking is common in the United States, especially among young people, some of whom drink in order to quit smoking.
To learn more, the researchers studied hundreds of twitter tweets posted within 4 days of April 2018. These twitter content were about people’s plans to get drunk.
Nearly one-third of the tweets contained specific motivations. The most common are celebrations, such as birthdays, work results, sports games or holidays.
Another common reason is coping with stress, negative emotions or loss. Including: “I’m too nervous, I need to get drunk tonight.” “I want to get drunk and forget this terrible year.”
Researchers such as Benjamin Riordan of the University of Sydney in Australia, Jennifer Merrill of Brown University of Rhode Island and Rose Marie Ward of Miami University in Ohio believe that, Such public expression may induce and encourage risk-taking behavior of others.
The researchers point out that their findings have improved people’s understanding of attitudes and behaviors related to excessive drinking, and will guide future investigations into the connection between the intentions and actual behavior of drinkers.
At the same time, they said that the two main reasons for drunken celebration and coping identified in this study hint at possible interventions. For example, education about abstinence can be included in preventive actions in schools, universities, and community groups to reduce celebratory drinking.
The kidneys constantly filter the blood and remove toxins from the body, and the symptoms of chronic kidney disease are characterized by a reduced ability to perform this basic function. “Nature Communications” recently published a landmark study: an in vitro kidney model shown by American scientists has almost the same function as a real kidney, which is expected to change the research process of chronic kidney disease and other diseases. The kidney contains special structures called glomeruli. Each glomerulus is a filter barrier consisting of two highly specialized cell layers and a membrane that acts as a selective filter. When blood passes through each glomerulus, toxins and small molecules can pass through, while proteins and other important components remain in the blood.
A major challenge in the field of kidney research is to replicate glomeruli in vitro. It is difficult to reconstruct the glomerular filtration barrier in the laboratory using standard techniques. Most published studies use an artificial membrane between two cell layers. Although liquid can be exchanged, cells cannot pass through the membrane in the same way as biology, which makes the model unable to truly filter. The key component missing from the current experiment is a selective filter that allows proper cell-to-cell communication. The new model developed by Los Angeles Children’s Hospital cultivates healthy kidney cells in a way that allows the formation of a natural glomerular barrier, just like in the body. The function of the glomerulus model is almost the same as that of the real kidney. Researchers call this model, which is entirely derived from healthy human kidney tissue, a “glomerulus on a chip.”
Researchers add liquid to one side of the cell, and collect the filtered filtrate of the “glomerulus” on the other side. In the experiment, they added serum from healthy individuals. Without the use of artificial filters, the extracorporeal glomeruli exhibit the functions of the human kidney: proteins remain in the serum, while smaller molecules enter the filtrate.
When adding serum from patients with chronic kidney disease, the researchers found that the in vitro glomerulus model showed the same type of damage clinically: the protein began to leak through the damaged filter. The protein level measured in the filtrate matches the clinical filtrate sample of the patient, and the correlation is about 90%.
The researchers said that this model represents a major leap in the current standards for in vitro kidney research, opening the door to studying the molecular mechanisms of chronic kidney disease damage and, more importantly, how to prevent damage. The model can also be used to screen new drugs before human clinical trials.