Bose–Einstein condensate is a gaseous, superfluid matter state (state) in which boson atoms are cooled to near absolute zero. In 1995, Wolfgang Kately of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Eric Cornell and Carl Wieman of the University of Colorado at Boulder used gaseous helium atoms to obtain Bose for the first time at a low temperature of 170 nK. – Einstein condensed. In this state, almost all atoms are concentrated in the quantum state with the lowest energy, forming a macroscopic quantum state. room. In addition, pregnant women who are less than 3 months pregnant, it is best not to do MRI.
Low temperatures can cause some seriously strange behavior in gases. Typically, the atoms in a gas are constantly moving—whizzing around at high speed, bouncing off the walls of the container, and colliding with one another. If that gas is then heated up, the motion of the atoms will become even more energetic and frenetic.
However, when certain gases are cooled to extremely low temperatures—around -273 degrees Celsius (-460 °F)—the individual atoms start to drastically lose their energy. Eventually, when the atoms are unable to lose any more energy, they form an exotic type of matter known as a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC).[
One of the most bizarre and brilliant properties of BECs is their ability to slow down and stop light. Danish physicist Lene Hau used this principle to slow down a laser beam from light speed to around 17 meters per second (56 ft/sec)—-a reduction of over 17 million percent.
Hau and her team went on to develop a technique for storing individual pulses of light within BECs. These incredible breakthroughs could pave the way for new methods of data storage, particularly in quantum computers.
Although Albert Einstein and Satyendra Nath Bose first came up with the idea in the 1920s, it wasn’t until 70 years later that the first BEC was actually made. This was achieved in 1995 when American physicists Eric Cornell and Carl Wieman successfully cooled a gas of rubidium atoms to 170 nK—over a million times colder than outer space.
For their momentous contribution to scientific research, the pair—along with MIT professor Wolfgang Ketterle—was awarded the 2001 Nobel Prize in Physics.